Glossary of EV, Battery, Motor and General Electrical Terms

A
Accumulator – A rechargeable battery or cell (see also Secondary battery).
Actual Capacity or Available Capacity – The total battery capacity, usually expressed in ampere-hours or milliampere-hours, available to perform work. The actual capacity of a particular battery is determined by a number of factors, including the cut-off voltage, discharge rate, temperature, method of charge and the age and life history of the battery.
Actuator: A device that creates mechanical motion by converting various forms of energy to rotating or linear mechanical energy.
Alternate Fuel Vehicle A vehicle powered by fuel other than gasoline or diesel. Examples of alternative fuels are electricity, hydrogen, and CNG.
Alternating Current: The standard type of electricity in homes and the most effective way of powering an EV. In AC circuit the voltage swings between positive and negative meaning current flows in both directions (hence ‘alternating’)
Ambient Temperature (AMB): The temperature of the space (air) around the motor. Most motors are designed to operate in an ambient not to exceed 40C (104F).
Amp Hour or Ampere-Hour – A unit of measurement of a battery’s electrical storage capacity. Current multiplied by time in hours equals ampere-hours. One amp hour is equal to a current of one ampere flowing for one hour. Also, 1 amp hour is equal to 1,000 mAh
Ampere or Amp – An Ampere or an Amp is a unit of measurement for an electrical current. One amp is the amount of current produced by an electromotive force of one volt acting through the resistance of one ohm. Named for the French physicist Andre Marie Ampere. The abbreviation for Amp is A but its mathematical symbol is “I”. Small currents are measured in milli-Amps or thousandths of an Amp.
Ampere-Hour Capacity – The number of ampere-hours which can be delivered by a battery on a single discharge.
Anode – During discharge, the negative electrode of the cell is the anode. During charge, that reverses and the positive electrode of the cell is the anode. The anode gives up electrons to the load circuit and dissolves into the electrolyte.
Aqueous Batteries – Batteries with water-based electrolytes. The electrolyte may not appear to be liquid since it can be absorbed by the battery’s separator.
Armature: The rotating part of a brush type direct current (DC) motor. In an induction motor, the rotating part is called a rotor.
B
Battery – An electrochemical device used to store energy. The term is usually applied to a group of two or more electric cells connected together electrically. In common usage, the term “battery” is also applied to a single cell, such as a AA battery.
Battery Capacity – The electric output of a cell or battery on a service test delivered before the cell reaches a specified final electrical condition and may be expressed in ampere-hours, watt- hours, or similar units. The capacity in watt-hours is equal to the capacity in ampere-hours multiplied by the battery voltage.
Battery Charger – A device capable of supplying electrical energy to a battery.
Battery Electric Vehicle: See EV below, An electric vehicle whose electricity is exclusively stored in batteries rather than a fuel cell or generator.
Battery Management System: mini onboard computer to monitor entire battery system and each individual battery. Also may be built into charging system.
Battery-Charge Rate – The current expressed in amperes (A) or milli amps (mA) at which a battery is charged.
Breakdown Torque: the maximum torque a motor will develop under increasing load conditions without an abrupt drop in speed and power. Sometimes called pull-out torque.
Brush: Current conducting material in a DC motor, usually graphite, or a combination of graphite and other materials. The brush rides on the commutator of a motor and forms an electrical connection between the armature and the power source.
C
C – Used to signify a charge or discharge rate equal to the capacity of a battery divided by 1 hour. Thus C for a 1600 mAh battery would be 1.6 A, C/5 for the same battery would be 320 mA and C/10 would be 160 mA. Because C is dependent on the capacity of a battery the C rate for batteries of different capacities must also be different.
Canadian Standards Association (CSA): The agency that sets safety standards for motors and other electric equipment used in Canada.
Capacitance: As the measure of electrical storage potential of a capacitor, the unit of capacitance is the farad, but typical values are expressed in microfarads (MFD).
Capacitor Start Motor: Or more specifically, Capacitor-Start, induction-run. Provides high starting and break-down torque, medium starting current. Used on hard starting applications such as compressors, positive displacement pumps, farm equipment, etc.
Capacitor-Start, capacitor-run: Similar to capacitor-start, except have higher efficiency. Generally used in higher HP single phase ratings.
Capacitor: A device that stores electrical energy. Used on single phase motors.
Capacity – The capacity of a battery is a measure of the amount of energy that it can deliver in a single discharge. Battery capacity is normally listed as amp-hours (or milli amp-hours) or as watt-hours.
Cathode – Is an electrode that, in effect, oxidizes the anode or absorbs the electrons. During discharge, the positive electrode of a voltaic cell is the cathode. When charging, that reverses and the negative electrode of the cell is the cathode.
Cell – An electrochemical device, composed of positive and negative plates and electrolyte, which is capable of storing electrical energy. It is the basic “building block” of a battery.
Centrifugal Start Switch: A mechanism that disconnects the starting circuit (start winding) when the rotor reaches approximately 75% of operating speed (usually in 2 or 3 seconds).
Charge – The conversion of electric energy, provided in the form of a current, into chemical energy within the cell or battery.
Charge Rate – The amount of current applied to battery during the charging process. This rate is commonly expressed as a fraction of the capacity of the battery. For example, the C/2 or C/5.
Charging – The process of supplying electrical energy for conversion to stored chemical energy.
Commutator: The part of a DC motor armature that causes the electrical current to be switched to various armature windings. Properly sequenced switching creates the motor torque. The commutator also provides the means to transmit the electrical current to the moving armature through the brushes that ride on the commutator.
Constant-Current Charge – A charging process in which the current applied to the battery is maintained at a constant value.
Constant-Voltage Charge – A charging process in which the voltage applied to a battery is held at a constant value.
Continuous Duty: The operation of loads for over one hour.
Cutoff Voltage, final – The prescribed lower-limit voltage at which battery discharge is considered complete. The cutoff or final voltage is usually chosen so that the maximum useful capacity of the battery is realized. The cutoff voltage varies with the type of battery and the kind of service in which the battery is used. When testing the capacity of a NiMH or NiCD battery a cutoff voltage of 1.0 V is normally used. 0.9V is normally used as the cutoff voltage of an alkaline cell. A device that is designed with too high a cutoff voltage may stop operating while the battery still has significant capacity remaining.
Cycle – One sequence of charge and discharge.
Cycle Life – For rechargeable batteries, the total number of charge/discharge cycles the cell can sustain before it’s capacity is significantly reduced. End of life is usually considered to be reached when the cell or battery delivers only 80% of rated ampere- hour capacity. NiMH batteries typically have a cycle life of 500 cycles, NiCd batteries can have a cycle life of over 1,000 cycles. The cycle of a battery is greatly influenced by the type depth of the cycle (deep or shallow) and the method of recharging. Improper charge cycle cutoff can greatly reduce the cycle life of a battery.
D
DC Current: The power supply available from batteries, generators (not alternators), or a rectified source used for special purpose applications.
Deep Cycle – A cycle in which the discharge is continued until the battery reaches it’s cut-off voltage, usually 80% of discharge.
Depth of Discharge: A measure of how much energy has been withdrawn from a battery. It is expressed as a percentage of the total battery capacity. For example – if you use 25ah of a 100ah battery, that is running the battery to 25% DOD.
Direct Current (DC) – The type of electrical current that a battery can supply. One terminal is always positive and another is always negative.
Discharge – The conversion of the chemical energy of the battery into electric energy.
Discharge, deep – Withdrawal of all electrical energy to the end-point voltage before the cell or battery is recharged.
Discharge, high-rate – Withdrawal of large currents for short intervals of time, usually at a rate that would completely discharge a cell or battery in less than one hour.
Discharge, low-rate – Withdrawal of small currents for long periods of time, usually longer than one hour.
Drain – Withdrawal of current from a cell.
Dry Cell – A primary cell in which the electrolyte is absorbed in a porous medium, or is otherwise restrained from flowing. Common practice limits the term “dry cell” to the Leclanch‚ cell, which is the common commercial type.
Duty Cycle: The relationship between operating time and the resting time of an electric motor.
E
Efficiency: The ration of the useful work performed and the energy expended in producing it.
Electrochemical Couple – The system of active materials within a cell that provides electrical energy storage through an electrochemical reaction.
Electrode – An electrical conductor through which an electric current enters or leaves a conducting medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum. For electrolytic solutions, many solids, and molten masses, an electrode is an electrical conductor at the surface of which a change occurs from conduction by electrons to conduction by ions. For gases and vacuum, the electrodes merely serve to conduct electricity to and from the medium.
Electrolyte – A chemical compound which, when fused or dissolved in certain solvents, usually water, will conduct an electric current. All electrolytes in the fused state or in solution give rise to ions which conduct the electric current.
Electropositivity – The degree to which an element in a galvanic cell will function as the positive element of the cell. An element with a large electropositivity will oxidize faster than an element with a smaller electropositivity.
End-of-Discharge Voltage – The voltage of the battery at termination of a discharge.
Endshield: Also referred to as “End Bell”. The part of the motor that houses the bearing supporting the rotor and acts as a protective guard to the internal parts of the motor.
Energy – the capacity to perform work – expressed as capacity times voltage, or watt-hours.
Energy Density – Ratio of cell energy to weight or volume (watt-hours per pound, or watt-hours per cubic inch).
Excitation: The act of creating magnetic lines of force from a motor winding by applying voltage.
F
Field: The stationary part of a DC motor, commonly consisting of permanent magnets. Sometimes used also to describe the stator of an AC motor.
Final Voltage (see Cutoff voltage)
Float Charging – Method of recharging in which a secondary cell is continuously connected to a constant-voltage supply that maintains the cell in fully charged condition. Typically applied to lead acid batteries.
Force- any influence that causes a free body to undergo an acceleration.
Frame: Standardized motor mounting and shaft dimensions as established by NEMA or IEC.
Frequency: An expression of how often a complete cycle occurs. Cycles per second describe how many complete cycles occur in a given time increment. Hertz (hz) has been adopted to describe cycles per second so that time as well as number of cycles is specified. The standard power supply in North America is 60hz. Most of the rest of the world has 50hz power.
Fuel Cell Vehicle: A vehicle powered by a fuel cell, usually hydrogen. This is essentially an electric vehicle but using a liquid to store energy rather than a battery.
Full Load Amperes (FLA): Line current (amperage) drawn by a motor when operating at rated load and voltage on motor nameplate. Important for proper wire size selection, and motor starter or drive selection. Also called full load current.
Full-Load Torque: The force produced by a motor running at rated full-load speed at rated horsepower.
Fuse: A piece of metal, connected in the circuit to be protected, that melts and interrupts the circuit when excess current flows.
G
Galvanic Cell – A combination of electrodes, separated by electrolyte, that is capable of producing electrical energy by electrochemical action.
Gassing – The evolution of gas from one or both of the electrodes in a cell. Gassing commonly results from self-discharge or from the electrolysis of water in the electrolyte during charging.
Generator: Any machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
H
Hertz: Frequency, in cycles per second, of AC power. Named after H.R. Hertz, the German scientist who discovered electrical oscillations.
High Voltage Test: Application of a voltage greater than the working voltage to test the adequacy of motor insulation. Often referred to as high potential test or “hi-pot”.
Horsepower (HP): A measure of the rate of work. 33,000 pounds lifted one foot in one minute, or 550 pounds lifted one foot in one second. Exactly 746 watts of electrical power equals one horsepower.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle  A vehicle that combines conventional power production (e.g. an ICE) and an electric motor.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle: A vehicle which is powered by both electricity and another fuel, usually petrol/gas (eg Toyota Prius). This is usually just a more efficient way of using the standard fuel as there is no external source of electricity.
I
Impedance: The total opposition in an electric circuit to the flow of an alternating current. Expressed in ohms.
Induction Motor: The simplest and most rugged electric motor, it consists of a wound stator and a rotor assembly. The AC induction motor is named because the electric current flowing in its secondary member (the rotor) is induced by the alternating current flowing in its primary member (stator). the power supply is connected only to the stator. The combined electromagnetic effects of the two currents produce the force to create rotation.
Insulation: In motors, classified by maximum allowable operating temperature. NEMA Classifications include:
Integral Horsepower Motor: A motor rated one horsepower or larger at 1800RPM. By NEMA definitions, this is any motor having a three digit frame, for example 143T.
Intermittent Duty: The operation during alternate periods of load and rest. Usually expressed as 5 minutes, 30 minutes or
Internal Combustion Engine: the standard way to power a vehicle, this part is removed when converting to an electric car.
Internal Resistance – The resistance to the flow of an electric current within the cell or battery.
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC): The worldwide organization that promotes international unification of standards or norms. Its formal decisions on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international consensus.
J
Joule- The work required to continuously produce one watt of power for one second; or one watt second (W·s) (compare kilowatt hour). This relationship can be used to define the watt.
K
Kilowatt: A unit of power equal to 1000 watts and approximately equal to 1.34 horsepower.
L
Lithium Ion  Or Lithium-ion polymer battery. are a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode (anode) to the positive electrode (cathode) during discharge, and from the cathode to the anode when charged.
Load: The work required of a motor to drive attached equipment. Expressed in horsepower or torque at a certain motor speed.
Locked Rotor Current: Measured current with the rotor locked and with rated voltage and frequency applied to the motor.
Locked Rotor Torque: Measured torque with the rotor locked and with rated voltage and frequency applied to the motor.
M
Magnetic Polarity: Distinguishes the location of North and South poles of a magnet. Magnetic lines of force emanate from the North pole of a magnet and terminate at the South pole.
Memory Effect – A phenomenon in which a cell, operated in successive cycles to less than full, depth of discharge, temporarily loses the remainder of its capacity at normal voltage levels (usually applies only to Ni-Cd cells). Note, memory effect can be induced in NiCd cells even if the level of discharge is not the same during each cycle. Memory effect is reversable.
Mounting, Basic Types: The most common motor mounts include: rigid base, resilient base C face or D flange, and extended through bolts.
Mush Coil: A coil made with round wire.
N
Nano Crystalline Motor – Conducts energy approx 10 times more efficiently than Iron core motors.
National Electric Code (NEC): A safety code regarding the use of electricity. The NEC is sponsored by the National Fire Protection Institute. It is also used by insurance inspectors and by many government bodies regulating building codes.
Negative Terminal – The terminal of a battery from which electrons flow in the external circuit when the cell discharges. See Positive Terminal.
Neighborhood Electric Vehicle. Used for short trips around ones community. Church, School, meeting, etc
NEMA (National Electrical Manufactures Association): A non-profit trade organization, supported by manufacturers of electrical apparatus and supplies in the United States. Its standards alleviate misunderstandings and help buyers select the proper products. NEMA standards for motors cover frame sizes and dimensions, horsepower ratings, service factors, temperature rises and performance characteristics.
Nonaqueous Batteries – Cells that do not contain water, such as those with molten salts or organic electrolytes.
O
ODP: Open Drip Proof, housing has openings in end shields and shell to allow air to cool the motor. Normally used in
Ohm’s Law – The formula that describes the amount of current flowing through a circuit. Ohm’s Law – In a given electrical circuit, the amount of current in amperes (I) is equal to the pressure in volts (V) divided by the resistance, in ohms (R). Ohm’s law can be shown by three different formulas:
Open Circuit – Condition of a battery which is neither on charge nor on discharge (i.e., disconnected from a circuit).
Open-Circuit Voltage – The difference in potential between the terminals of a cell when the circuit is open (i.e., a no-load condition).
Output Shaft: The shaft of a speed reducer assembly that is connected to the load. This may also be called the drive shaft or the slow speed shaft.
Overhung load: Is the perpendicular force pushing against the side of an output shaft. This force is either from a weight hanging on the output shaft or from a sprocket, pulley or gear being used on the shaft.
Oxidation – A chemical reaction that results in the release of electrons by an electrode’s active material.
P
Parallel Connection – The arrangement of cells in a battery made by connecting all positive terminals together and all negative terminals together. The voltage of the group remains the same as the voltage of the individual cell. The capacity is increased in proportion to the number of cells.
Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle PZEVs meet SULEV tailpipe emission standards, have zero evaporative emissions and a 15 year / 150,000 mile warranty. No evaporative emissions means that they have fewer emissions while being driven than a typical gasoline car has while just idling.
Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC): (Single Phase) Performance and applications similar to shaded pole motors, but more efficient, with lower line current and higher horsepower capabilities.
Phase: The number of individual voltages applied to an AC motor. A single-phase motor has one voltage in the shape of a sine wave applied to it. A three-phase motor has three individual voltages applied to it. The three phases are at 120 degrees with respect to each other so that peaks of voltage occur at even time intervals to balance the power received and delivered by the motor throughout its 360 degrees of rotation.
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle: A hybrid electric vehicle with a substantial battery pack which is able to be charged by an external source other than its fossil fuel (i.e. plugged into household electricity). These vehicles often have the ability to travel is a ‘pure electric mode’ without using any conventional fuels.
Plugging: A method of braking a motor that involves applying partial or full voltage in reverse in order to bring the motor to zero speed.
Polarity: As applied to electric circuits, polarity indicates which terminal is positive and which is negative. As applied to magnets, it indicates which pole is North and which pole is South.
Poles: Magnetic devices set up inside the motor by the placement and connection of the windings. Divide the number of poles into 7200 to determine the motor’s normal speed. For example, 7200 divided by 2 poles equals 3600RPM.
Positive Terminal – The terminal of a battery toward which electrons flow through the external circuit when the cell discharges. See Negative Terminal.
Power – the rate at which work is performed or energy is converted.
Primary Battery – A battery made up of primary cells. See Primary Cell.
Primary Cell – A cell designed to produce electric current through an electrochemical reaction that is not efficiently reversible. The cell, when discharged, cannot be efficiently recharged by an electric current. Alakline, lithium, and zinc air are common types of primary cells.
Pull-Up Torque: The minimum torque delivered by a motor between zero and the rated RPM, equal to the maximum load a motor can accelerate to rated RPM.
Pulse Width Modulation: a high-efficiency technique for controlling voltage output in a motor controller.
R
Rated Capacity – The number of ampere-hours a cell can deliver under specific conditions (rate of discharge, end voltage, temperature); usually the manufacturer’s rating.
Rechargeable – Capable of being recharged; refers to secondary cells or batteries.
Recombination – State in which the gases normally formed within the battery cell during its operation, are recombined to form water.
Reduction – A chemical process that results in the acceptance of electrons by an electrode’s active material.
Regenerative Braking Systems – An EV with a braking system that uses the braking RPM load to charge the onboard batteries.
Relay: A device have two separate circuits, it is constructed so that a small current in one of the circuits controls a large current in the other circuit. A motor starting relay opens or closes the starting circuit under predetermined electrical conditions in the main circuit (run winding).
Reluctance: The characteristics of a magnetic field which resists the flow of magnetic lines of force through it.
Resistor: A device that resists the flow of electrical current for the purpose of operation, protection or control. There are two types of resistors-fixed and variable. A fixed resistor has a fixed value of ohms while a variable resistor is adjustable.
Rotation: The direction in which a shaft turns is either clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW). When specifying rotation, also state if viewed from the shaft end or the opposite shaft end of the motor.
Rotor: The rotating component of an induction AC motor. It is typically constructed of a laminated, cylindrical iron core with slots of cast-aluminum conductors. Short-circuiting end rings complete the “squirrel cage,” which rotates when the moving magnetic field induces current in the shorted conductors.
S
Seal – The structural part of a galvanic cell that restricts the escape of solvent or electrolyte from the cell and limits the ingress of air into the cell (the air may dry out the electrolyte or interfere with the chemical reactions).
Secondary Battery – A battery made up of secondary cells. See Storage Battery; Storage Cell.
Self Discharge – Discharge that takes place while the battery is in an open-circuit condition.
Separator – The permeable membrane that allows the passage of ions, but prevents electrical contact between the anode and the cathode.
Series Connection – The arrangement of cells in a battery configured by connecting the positive terminal of each successive cell to the negative terminal of the next adjacent cell so that their voltages are cumulative. See Parallel Connection.
Service Factor: A measure of the overload capacity built into a motor. A 1.15 SF means the motor can deliver 15% more than the rated horsepower without injurious overheating. A 1.10 SF motor should not be loaded beyond its rated horsepower. Service factors will vary for different horsepower motors and for different speeds.
Shaded Pole Motor: (Single Phase) Motor has low starting torque, low cost. Usually used in direct-drive fans and small blowers, and in small gearmotors.
Shallow Cycling – Charge and discharge cycles which do not allow the battery to approach it’s cutoff voltage. Shallow cycling of NiCd cells lead to “memory effect”. Shallow cycling is not detrimental to NiMH cells and it is the most beneficial for lead acid batteries.
Shelf Life – For a dry cell, the period of time (measured from date of manufacture), at a storage temperature of 21 degrees C (69 degrees F), after which the cell retains a specified percentage (usually 90%) of its original energy content.
Short-Ciruit – A condition that occurs when a short electrical path is unintentionally created. Batteries can supply hundreds of amps if short-circuited, potentially melting the terminals and creating sparks.
Split Phase (or more specifically Split-Phase start-induction run): (Single Phase) Motor has moderate starting torque, high breakdown torque. Used on easy-starting equipment, such as belt-driven fans and blowers, grinders, centrifugal pumps, gearmotors, ect.
Starting Torque: Force produced by a motor as it begins to turn from standstill and accelerate (sometimes called locked rotor torque).
Starting-Lighting-Ignition (SLI) Battery – A battery designed to start internal combustion engines and to power the electrical systems in automobiles when the engine is not running. SLI batteries can be used in emergency lighting situations.
Stationary Battery – A secondary battery designed for use in a fixed location.
Stator: The fixed part of an AC motor, consisting of copper windings within steel laminations.
Storage Battery – An assembly of identical cells in which the electrochemical action is reversible so that the battery may be recharged by passing a current through the cells in the opposite direction to that of discharge. While many non-storage batteries have a reversible process, only those that are economically rechargeable are classified as storage batteries. Synonym: Accumulator; Secondary Battery. See Secondary Cell.
Storage Cell – An electrolytic cell for the generation of electric energy in which the cell after being discharged may be restored to a charged condition by an electric current flowing in a direction opposite the flow of current when the cell discharges. Synonym: Secondary Cell. See Storage Battery.
T
Taper Charge – A charge regime delivering moderately high-rate charging current when the battery is at a low state of charge and tapering the current to lower rates as the battery becomes more fully charged.
Temperature Rise: The amount by which a motor, operating under rated conditions, is hotter than its surrounding ambient temperature.
Temperature Tests: These determine the temperature of certain parts of a motor, above the ambient temperature, while operating under specific environmental conditions.
Terminals – The parts of a battery to which the external electric circuit is connected.
Thermal Protector: A device, sensitive to current and heat, which protects the motor against overheating due to overload or failure to start. Basic types include automatic rest, manual reset and resistance temperature detectors.
Thermal Runaway – A condition whereby a cell on charge or discharge will destroy itself through internal heat generation caused by high overcharge or high rate of discharge or other abusive conditions.
Thermocouple: A pair of dissimilar conductors joined to produce a thermoelectric effect and used to accurately determine temperature. Thermocouples are used in laboratory testing of motors to determine the internal temperature of the motor winding.
Thermostat: A protector, which is temperature-sensing only, that is mounted on the stator winding. Two leads from the device must be connected to control circuit, which initiates corrective action. The customer must specify if the thermostats are to be normally closed or normally open.
Torque: The turning effort or force applied to a shaft, usually expressed in inch-pounds or inch-ounces for fractional and sub-fractional HP motors.
Transformer: Used to isolate line voltage from a circuit or to change voltage and current to lower or higher values. Constructed of primary and secondary windings around a common magnetic core.
Trickle Charging – A method of recharging in which a secondary cell is either continuously or intermittently connected to a constant-current supply that maintains the cell in fully charged condition.
U
Underwriters Laboratories (UL): Independent United States testing organization that sets safety standards for motors and other electrical equipment.
V
Vent – A normally sealed mechanism that allows for the controlled escape of gases from within a cell.
Volt – The unit of measurement of electromotive force, or difference of potential, which will cause a current of one ampere to flow through a resistance of one ohm. Named for Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745-1827).
Voltage, cutoff – Voltage at the end of useful discharge. (See Voltage, end-point.)
Voltage, end-point – Cell voltage below which the connected equipment will not operate or below which operation is not recommended.
Voltage, nominal – Voltage of a fully charged cell when delivering rated current.
Voltage: A unit of electromotive force that, when applied to conductors, will produce current in the conductors.
W
Watt: The amount of power required to maintain a current of 1 ampere at a pressure of one volt when the two are in phase with each other. One horsepower is equal to 746 watts. Watts = amperes multiplied by volts. 120 volt @ 1 amp = 12 volts @ 10 amps.
Wet Cell – A cell, the electrolyte of which is in liquid form and free to flow and move.
Winding: Typically refers to the process of wrapping coils of copper wire around a core, usually of steel. In an AC induction motor, the primary winding is a stator consisting of wire coils inserted into slots within steel laminations. The secondary winding of an AC induction motor is usually not a winding at all, but rather a cast rotor assembly. In a permanent magnet DC motor, the winding is the rotating armature.
Work – the amount of energy transferred by a force acting through a distance.

Compiled via The Electric Motor Warehouse, The Environmentaly Friendly Store and Green Batteries.

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